A range of laryngoscopes are used for inspection, investigation and intervention in the areas of the oral pharynx, lower pharynx, and larynx. Oscillation analyses of the vocal folds can also be carried out in combination with a stroboscope or high-speed camera. A distinction is drawn between direct and indirect laryngoscopy for interventions in the larynx. Direct laryngoscopy involves a laryngoscope spatula being positioned and engaged under anesthetic. Microsurgical instruments can then be introduced using a rigid laryngoscope.
Indirect laryngoscopy is used to inspect the glottal area. Special rigid and flexible endoscopes are used in this area. Magnifying laryngoscopes are the instrument of choice when using rigid endoscopes, because these offer two magnifying ranges.
The flexible endoscope offers the easiest method of visualizing the larynx and this instrument can be introduced through the nose or the mouth. However, it is also possible to take sample excisions using a specially curved forceps under local sedation.
Areas of application for direct laryngoscopy:
- Sample excisions to clarify the spread of tumors
- Ablation of benign changes, e.g. polyps, papillomas, or Reineke’s edemas
- Repositioning of the arytenoids
- Partial resections of the glottis
- Phonosurgical interventions
- Vocal fold augmentations
Areas of application for indirect laryngoscopy:
- Diagnostics of the larynx
- Sample excisions
- Ablation of changes